In the Soviet University, the central office ofstatistic produced two sets of demographic statistics, one for internal, onefor publication. Party archives in Chinahave widely different set of statistics at every level; at least threedifferent sets of unpublished data exist in the archives, provincial publicsecurity, local party committee, and local statistic bureau. A team of 200 wasinstructed by ZhaoZiyang, general party secretary, to go around every provinceto examine internal party documents. report never published, but ChenYizi, fled to USA in 1989, claimed thatthe team had arrived at a death toll of 43 to 46 million of the famine. EvenChen and his team met a number difficult to investigation. Some sets simplymissing, fobbed off or misled.Only one who has investigated the famine has taken Chen’s claim seriously,Jasper Becker, published the Hungery Ghosts in 1996.We confront the official data with archival evidencewe find a pattern of underestimation, sometimes by 30 to 50%. In 1964, an investigation team in Hunandiscovered that population number deceit over 1%, some counties even liar over2 or 3%; in 1965, public security ministry investigate that in Gangsu deceit2.2% in population, ‘many local cadres, in order to obtain greater clothrations and other goods, intentionally increase population figure’. In 1964,the centre supervene bureau confirmed that the question of deceit of populationis far worse than expectation. Hebei and Henan each deceit morn than a million,Shangdong deceit 700000. There is enough archive evidence, from asufficiently large diversity of party units, to confirm the figure of 43 to 46million premature deaths by Chen Yizi, is reliable estimate, the death tollstands at a minimum of 45 million excess deaths. It could be even worse thanthat. Some historians speculate that true figure stand high 5 to 6 million.YuXiguang, an independent research with a great deal of experience part the figureof 55 million excess death. CaoShuji, used published party gazetteers toesterase death rates on a county basis, is in agreement with other populationspecialists who proposed 32 million people died of hunger. But common senseshows that local party committee try their best to cover the true death number.
This book shows that at least 45 million people died unnecessary between 1958 to 1962. p.x.The fresh evidence demostrates, coercion, terror and systematic violence were the foundation of the Great Leap Forward. p.ximeticulars reports compiled by the party, we can infer that between 1958-1962 by a rough approximation of 6-8% of the victims were tortured to death or summarily killed, at least 2.5 million people. p.xi. other victims were deliberatedly deprived of food and starved to death. people were killed selectively because they were rich, or spoke out, or they donot like. p. xi.
 Frank Dikotter, Mao’s Great Famine The Historyof China most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958-1962 Walker & Co. NY 2010.p.325
 FrankDikotter, Mao’s Great Famine The History of China most Devastating Catastrophe,1958-1962 Walker & Co. NY 2010.p333
 Frallltrophe,1958-1962 Walker & Co. NY 2010.p334
 FrankDikotter, Mao’s Great Famine The History of China most Devastating Catastrophe,1958-1962 Walker & Co. NY 2010.p329